A scooter (additionally referred to as a motor scooter to avoid confusion with kick scooter, but not to be burdened with a motorized scooter) is a sort of motorbike with a step-via frame and a platform for the rider’s feet. elements of scooter design have been found in some of the earliest motorcycles, and scooters have been made given that 1914 or in advance. scooter improvement continued in Europe and the us between the sector wars.
The worldwide popularity of motor scooters dates from the put up-world war ii introductions of the vespa and lambretta models in Italy. these scooters have been intended to offer cost-efficient personal transportation (engines from 50 to 250 cc or three.1 to fifteen.3 cu in). the original layout continues to be broadly used on this utility. maxi-scooters, with larger engines from 250 to 850 cc (15 to 52 cu in) have been evolved for western markets.
scooters are famous for personal transportation in part because of being extra less expensive, easy to function, and more handy to park and shop than a vehicle. licensing necessities for scooters are less difficult and inexpensive than for automobiles in maximum parts of the world, and coverage is usually inexpensive.
The shorter oxford English dictionary defines a motor scooter is a motorbike just like a kick scooter with a seat, a floorboard, and small or low wheels. the united states department of transportation defines a scooter as a motorcycle that has a platform for the operator’s feet or has integrated footrests, and has a step-via architecture.
The classic scooter design features a step-thru body and a flat floorboard for the rider’s toes. this layout is possible because most scooter engines and force systems are attached to the rear axle or below the seat. in contrast to a conventional bike, wherein the engine is established on the body, most modern-day scooters permit the engine to swing with the rear wheel, at the same time as most vintage scooters and some newer unfashionable fashions have an axle-hooked up engine. contemporary scooters beginning from overdue-Nineteen Eighties commonly use a constantly variable transmission (cvt), while older ones use a manual transmission with the gearshift and grab manipulate built into the left handlebar.
Scooters normally function bodywork, including a the front leg guard and body that conceals all or maximum of the mechanicals. there is frequently a few indispensable storage space, both beneath the seat, built into the the front leg protect, or each. scooters have varying engine displacements and configurations ranging from 50 cc unmarried-cylinder to 850 cc twin-cylinder fashions.
Traditionally, scooter wheels are smaller than traditional motorcycle wheels and are manufactured from pressed steel or solid aluminum alloy, bolt on without difficulty, and often are interchangeable between front and rear. a few scooters deliver a spare wheel. many current scooters use conventional front forks with the front axle mounted at each ends.
First generation (1915–1930)
the motoped entered production in 1915, and is assumed to be the first motor scooter. they were observed that yr by using the autoped, whose engine become engaged via pushing the handlebar column ahead and whose brake became engaged by way of pulling the column again. autopeds had been made in long island, the big apple from 1915 to 1921, and have been also made underneath licence with the aid of krupp in germany from 1919 to 1922, following international war i.
the number of scooter producers and designs accelerated after international war i. the british – abc cars skootamota, the kenilworth, and the reynolds runabout debuted in 1919, with gloucestershire plane organization following with its unibus in 1920. the skootamota became referred to for being sensible, popular, and least expensive, the kenilworth for its electric lighting, and the reynolds runabout for its superior specifications, along with the front suspension, a -pace gearbox, leg shields, and a seat sprung with leaf springs and coil springs. the unibus also had a -pace gearbox, however it’s miles extra wonderful for its complete bodywork, similar to that which could appear of 2d- and 1/3-generation scooters.
the recognition of first-era scooters turned into broken through a glut of unstable machines with bendy frames, and extra huge examples like the reynolds runabout and the unibus had been too expensive to be competitive. the primary generation had ended via the mid-Twenties.
Second generation (1936–1968)
Scooter (motorcycle) E. foster salsbury and austin elmore developed the salsbury motor flow, which become a division of northrop plane, a scooter with a seat above an enclosed drive train, and began production in 1936 in california. in 1938, salsbury delivered a extra effective scooter with a constantly variable transmission (cvt). this was the first use of a cvt on a scooter. it turned into this sort of fulfillment that Salisbury attempted to license the design to several ecu manufacturers along with piaggio. the motor waft set the requirements for all later fashions. it stimulated production of motor scooters by using powell, moto-scoot, cushman, rock-ola, and others.
The cushman company produced motor scooters from 1936 to 1965. cushman became an engine producer that commenced making scooters after salsbury discovered their provide to supply engines to be unacceptable. cushman and salsbury competed against each other, with both groups advertising the economy in their scooters. cushman claimed an performance of 120 mpg‑us (2.zero l/a hundred km; 140 mpg‑imp) at 30 mph (48 km/h). cushman added a centrifugal snatch to their scooters in 1940. the cushman vehicle float model fifty three changed into designed to be dropped by means of parachute with army airborne troops, and became subsequently known as the “cushman airborne”. cushman scooters were extensively utilized around navy bases for messenger carrier.
salsbury endured manufacturing scooters till 1948, whilst cushman persevered till 1965.
Small numbers of the 165 cc (10.1 cu in) harley-davidson topper scooter had been made out of 1960 to 1965 the use of the engine from their line of light bikes based at the dkw rt a hundred twenty five. it had a fiberglass body, a constantly variable transmission, and a pull-twine beginning mechanism.
Early postwar Japan
Scooter (motorcycle) After international battle ii, wartime aircraft producers had been forbidden from making plane, and needed to find other products to make for you to stay in enterprise. Fuji sang yo, a part of the former nakajima aircraft organisation, commenced production of the Fuji rabbit s-1 scooter in June 1946. inspired through powell scooters used by american servicemen, the s1 turned into designed to apply surplus navy components, which include the tailwheel of a nakajima bomber, re-purposed because the the front wheel of the s1. later that yr, mitsubishi added the c10, the primary of its line of silver pigeon scooters. this was stimulated by a salsbury motor go with the flow that have been introduced to japan by means of a eastern man who had lived inside the usa.
Manufacturing of the mitsubishi silver pigeon and the fuji rabbit endured thru several series until the Sixties. some series of the fuji rabbit have been advanced to a high stage of technological content; the s-601 rabbit superflow had an automatic transmission with a torque converter, an electric starter, and pneumatic suspension.Mitsubishi ended scooter manufacturing with the c140 silver pigeon, whilst fuji endured production of the rabbit till the last of the s-211 collection become built in June 1968.